Higher education in India has evolved in distinct and divergent streams with each stream monitored by an apex body, indirectly controlled by the Ministry of Human Resource Development and funded by the state governments. Most universities are administered by the States, however, there are 18 important universities called Central Universities, which are maintained by the Union Government. The increased funding of the central universities give them an advantage over state competitors.
The Indian Institutes of Technology were placed 50th in the world and 2nd in the field of Engineering (next only to MIT) by Times Higher World University Rankings although they did not appear in the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities.
International league tables produced in 2006 by the London-based Times Higher Education Supplement(THES) confirmed Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU)'s place among the world's top 200 universities. Likewise, THES 2006 ranked JNU's School of Social Sciences at the 57th position among the world's top 100 institutes for social sciences.
The National Law School of India University is highly regarded, with some of its students being awarded Rhodes Scholarships to Oxford University, and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences is consistently rated the top medical school in the country. Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are the top management institutes in India.
The private sector is strong in Indian higher education. This has been partly as a result of the decision by the Government to divert spending to the goal of universalisation of elementary education. Source: wikipedia
University Grants Commission (UGC) is responsible for coordination, determination and maintenance of standards, release of grants.Professional Councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards.
The statutory professional councils are:
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE),
Distance Education Council (DEC)
Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR),
Bar Council of India (BCI),
National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
Medical Council of India (MCI),
Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
Indian Nursing Council (INC)
Dentist Council of India (DCI)
Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)
Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)
Central Government is responsible for major policy relating to higher education in the country. It provides grants to the UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Educational Institutions as 'Deemed to be University' on the recommendation of the UGC. Presently there are sixteen Central Universities in the country. In pursuance of the Mizoram Accord, another Central University in the State of Mizoram is planned. There are 99 Institutions which have been declared as Deemed to be Universities by the Govt. of India as per Section of the UGC Act, 1956.State Governments are responsible for establishment of State Universities and colleges, and provide plan grants for their development and non-plan grants for their maintenance. The coordination and cooperation between the Union and the States is brought about in the field of education through the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE).Special Constitutional responsibility of the Central Government: Education is on the 'Concurrent list' subject to Entry 66 in the Union List of the Constitution. This gives exclusive Legislative Power to the Central Govt. for co-ordination and determination of standards in Institutions of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.Academic Qualification Framework - Degree Structure
There are three principle levels of qualifications within the higher education system in the country. These are: Bachelor / Undergraduate levelMaster's / Post-graduate levelDoctoral / Pre-doctoral levelDiploma courses are also available at the undergraduate and postgraduate level. At the undergraduate level, it varies between one to three years in length, postgraduate diplomas are normally awarded after one year's study.Bachelor's degree in arts, commerce and sciences is three years of education (after 12 years of school education). In some places there are honours and special courses available. These are not necessarily longer in duration but indicate greater depth of study. Bachelor degree in professional field of study in agriculture, dentistry, engineering, pharmacy, technology and veterinary medicine generally take four years, while architecture and medicine, it takes five and five and a half years respectively. There are other bachelor degrees in education, journalism and librarian-ship that are second degrees. Bachelor's degree in law can either be taken as an integrated degree lasting five years or three-year course as a second degree.Master's degree is normally of two-year duration. It could be coursework based without thesis or research alone. Admission to postgraduate programmes in engineering and technology is done on the basis of Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering or Combined Medical Test respectively.A pre-doctoral programme - Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) is taken after completion of the Master's Degree. This can either be completely research based or can include course work as well. Ph.D. is awarded two year after the M.Phil. or three years after the Master's degree. Students are expected to write a substantial thesis based on original research. generally takes longer. New InitiativesVocationalization at the First Degree Level
In conformity with the National Policy on Education, 1986, a scheme to provide career orientation to education at the first degree level was launched in 1994-95. Under the scheme, a university / college could introduce one to three vocational courses in 35 identified subjects.Autonomous Colleges138 colleges have been functioning as autonomous colleges in eight states in the country.National Eligibility Test (NET) is being conducted by the UGC since 1989 for eligibility for lectureship. Around 50000 students appear for the test every year. Pass percentage is around 5%. Eight State level Tests have been accredited at par with NET. System of Governance of Higher Education InstitutionsThe Universities are various kinds: with a single faculty, or multi-faculties; teaching or affiliating, or teaching cum affiliating, single campus or multiple campus. Most of the Universities are affiliating universities, which prescribe to the affiliated colleges the course of study, hold examinations and award degrees, while undergraduate and to some extent post the colleges affiliated to them impart graduate instruction. Many of the universities along with their affiliated colleges have grown rapidly to the extent of becoming unmanageable. Therefore, as per National Policy on Education, 1986, a scheme of autonomous colleges was promoted. In the autonomous colleges, whereas the degree continues to be awarded by the University, the name of the college is also included. The colleges develop and propose new courses of study to the university for approval. They are also fully responsible for conduct of examination. There are at present 138 autonomous colleges in the country. Focus of Ninth PlanThrust areas are: measures for quality improvement and modernization of syllabi, renewal of infrastructure, extra-budgetary resource mobilization and greater attention to issues in governance. Issues of access and relevance would receive attention. Conferment of grater autonomy to deserving colleges and professional upgradation of teachers through Academic Staff Colleges would be given priority. Emphasis is being placed on consolidation and optimal utilization of the existing infrastructure through institutional networking, restructuring expansion, so as to only meet the demand of the unserved areas with a focus on women and under privileged sections. The Open University system, which has been growing in popularity and size, is striving to diversify courses and offerings and gain wider acceptability by upgrading its quality. It would focus more sharply on the educational needs of women and rural society, as well as professional training of in-service employees.
Universities in India
Law Colleges in India
Management Institutes in India
Engineering Colleges in India
Medical Colleges of India
Fashion Design Institutes In India
Mass Communication in India
Deemed Universities in India
Open Universities in India
Insurance Institutes in India & Actuverdana Science
Ayurveda Colleges in India
The Indian Institute of Science (IISc)
National Institutes of Technology
List of Indian Institute of Technology
Indian Institute Of Technology IIT Madras
Indian Institute Of Technology IIT Kanpur
Indian Institute Of Technology IIT Kharagpur
Indian Institute Of Technology IIT Delhi
Indian Institute Of Technology IIT Bangalore
Indian Institute Of Technology IIT Bombay
MBA in India
Dance Schools in India
Foreign Language Courses
Engineering Education In India
IIT Joint Entrance Examination JEE
Scholarships in India